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What is Vena Contracta in Echo?

The vena contracta is the narrowest portion of a jet that occurs at or just downstream from the orifice ( Fig. 1 ). It is characterized by high velocity, laminar flow and is slightly smaller than the anatomic regurgitant orifice due to boundary effects.

How do you assess an echo mitral valve?

The severity can be assessed as mild (<5), moderate (5–10) and severe (>10). Continuous wave Doppler parallel to the mitral inflow in apical 4 chamber view to measure mean peak gradient (Mean PG) across the mitral valve. Measurements should be done in 3–5 consecutive beats and averaged.

How is tricuspid regurgitation echo measured?

A semiquantitative way to assess TR simply requires measuring the width of the color jet at its narrowest point as it passes through the VC. The 2017 American Society of Echocardiography valve regurgitation guideline (1) suggests that a VC width <3. mm indicates mild TR, whereas a VC width ≥7 mm indicates severe TR.

What are the red and blue flashes on echocardiogram?

Traditionally, flow towards the transducer is red, flow away from the transducer is blue, and higher velocities are shown in lighter shades.

What is pressure half-time in echocardiogram?

Pressure half-time (PHT) is defined as the time interval in milliseconds between the maximum mitral gradient in early diastole and the time point where the gradient is half the maximum initial value.

What does mild TR mean?

Tricuspid regurgitation (TR) is the most common lesion of the tricuspid valve (TV). Mild TR is common and usually is benign. However, moderate or severe TR can lead to irreversible myocardial damage and adverse outcomes. Despite these findings, few patients with significant TR undergo surgery.

What is pressure half time in echocardiogram?

What is mild MR on echocardiogram?

Mitral valve regurgitation — also called mitral regurgitation, mitral insufficiency or mitral incompetence — is a condition in which your heart’s mitral valve doesn’t close tightly, allowing blood to flow backward in your heart.

What colors are bad on an echocardiogram?

If you look even closer, you can see that the mitral valve in this echocardiogram has severe prolapse. You can see the failure of the anterior and posterior mitral valve leaflets to seal tightly. Plus, the rampant mixture of red and blue colors in the echocardiogram illustrates significant backward blood flow.

What is a normal pressure half time?

In normal subjects pressure half-times were 20–60 msec, in patients with isolated mitral regurgitation 35–80 msec and in patients with mitral stenosis 90–383 msec. There was no significant change in pressure half-time with exercise or on repeat examinations, indicating relative independence of mitral flow.