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What is collagen scaffolding?

A collagen scaffold was the first tissue-engineered construct used for meniscal tissue in clinical practice [19,101]. Highly porous CMI scaffold is made of type I collagen fibers. Although satisfactory clinical results are reported on CMI scaffolds, there are some concerns raised over their use.

Why is collagen used in tissue engineering?

Collagen can be extracted and purified from a variety of sources and offers low immunogenicity, a porous structure, good permeability, biocompatibility and biodegradability. Collagen scaffolds have been widely used in tissue engineering due to these excellent properties.

Is tissue engineering successful?

To date, tissue engineering advances have been very successfully translated from the lab bench to the clinic, and thousands of individuals have benefitted. With continued research, the field will continue to mature, and new and exciting treatments will make their way into clinical practice.

What makes collagen an effective biomaterial?

Collagen is used as a biomaterial because of its wide applicability in various fields. Its versatile role is due to its immense properties such as biodegradability, biocompatibility and easy availability [1-3].

What is collagen function?

Collagen is a hard, insoluble, and fibrous protein that makes up one-third of the protein in the human body. In most collagens, the molecules are packed together to form long, thin fibrils. These act as supporting structures and anchor cells to each other. They give the skin strength and elasticity.

Why is scaffolding important in tissue engineering?

Architecture: Scaffolds should provide void volume for vascularization, new tissue formation and remodeling so as to facilitate host tissue integration upon implantation. Moreover, the biomaterials should also be degradable upon implantation at a rate matching that of the new matrix production by the developing tissue.

What do Scaffolds do in tissue engineering?

Scaffolds are materials that have been engineered to cause desirable cellular interactions to contribute to the formation of new functional tissues for medical purposes. Cells are often ‘seeded’ into these structures capable of supporting three-dimensional tissue formation.

What is the greatest challenge to tissue-engineered replacement organs?

Assembly methods. A persistent problem within tissue engineering is mass transport limitations. Engineered tissues generally lack an initial blood supply, thus making it difficult for any implanted cells to obtain sufficient oxygen and nutrients to survive, or function properly.

What are the properties of collagen?

Is collagen a monomer or polymer?

Type I collagen is a natural polymer and the predominant molecular component that defines the microstructure-mechanical properties of connective tissue extracellular matrices (ECMs). Collagen molecules, also known as monomers, exist as coils of three intertwined helical polypeptides.

How are collagen scaffolds used in tissue engineering?

The typical application of a collagen scaffold in tissue engineering (including nerve, bone, cartilage, tendon, ligament, blood vessel and skin) will be further provided. The prospects and challenges about their future research and application will also be pointed out.

What is the role of collagen in ECM?

Collagen is the major component of ECM in many tissues or organs, which plays a key role in tissue development and in the maintenance of normal tissue architecture and function. In this section, several typical applications of collagen-based scaffolds in tissue engineering will be introduced, respectively.

Where are antigenic determinants located in collagen scaffold?

Collagen antigenicity had been assumed to be non-existent on account of the similarity in the amino acid sequence among species before concerns on secondary effects caused by immune responses in the 1950s [ 9 ]. The major antigenic determinants in the collagen molecule are located in the non-helical telopeptide region.

How are cells attached to the surface of collagen?

Moreover, cells can attach to the surface of collagen via integrin α 2 β 1 [30]. However, the pure collagen scaffold has insufficient mechanical strength for bone regeneration. Culturing the cells on them, the scaffolds will exhibit unstable geometrical properties due to the extensive cell-mediated contraction [31].