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What increases sleep spindles?

A rather novel method to increase the number of sleep spindles is to enhance slow-wave oscillations and the phase- coupled spindle activity by timed auditory stimulation. Playing sounds in synchrony with the brain’s inherent rhythm was shown to improve memory performance.

What happens during a sleep spindle?

Sleep spindles are bursts of neural oscillatory activity that are generated by interplay of the thalamic reticular nucleus (TRN) and other thalamic nuclei during stage 2 NREM sleep in a frequency range of ~11 to 16 Hz (usually 12–14 Hz) with a duration of 0.5 seconds or greater (usually 0.5–1.5 seconds).

How do sleep spindles affect memory?

That sleep spindles provide and restrict opportunities for memory reactivation particularly stresses the role of both the thalamus and the neocortex in controlling how and when information is processed by the sleeping brain.

What do sleep spindles mean?

Sleep spindles are an electroencephalographic (EEG) hallmark of non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep and are believed to mediate many sleep-related functions, from memory consolidation to cortical development.

Where are sleep spindles generated?

thalamic circuits
Sleep spindles occur during the depolarized phase of the slow oscillation and are generated in thalamic circuits as a consequence of cortical firing. When the cortex enters an up-state, strong cortical firing excites GABAergic neurons in the reticular nucleus of the thalamus.

What are sleep spindles quizlet?

What is a sleep spindle? A burst of oscillatory brain activity visible on an EEG that occurs during stage 2 sleep. It consists of 12-14 Hz waves that occur for at least 0.5 seconds. Sleep spindles are generated in the reticular nucleus of the thalamus.

What are sleep spindles important for?

Spindles induce massive influxes of calcium ions into cortical pyramidal cells and are believed to trigger intracellular mechanisms required for synaptic plasticity. Accumulating evidence from both animal and human studies suggests that sleep spindles play an important role in memory consolidation.

What are the functions of sleep spindles and K complex?

Spindles and K-complexes are ubiquitous NREM sleep EEG features and are signs of progression into stable sleep with the reaching of stage 2. They are well characterized by EEG features, but the network of generating and associated regions is poorly understood.

What are spindles in the brain?

Cognitive Psychology of Memory Sleep spindles are bursts of coherent brain activity visible on the EEG, which are most evident during stage 2 sleep. They consist of brief 11- to 16-Hz waves lasting 0.5–1.5 s.

What are sleep spindles and in what stage of sleep do they usually occur?

Sleep spindles are an indicator of NREM sleep5. When sleep spindles appear on an EEG readout, that shows a person has fallen asleep. Sleep spindles may be present in all stages of NREM, but they are most prevalent in stage 2 sleep6, which we tend to enter for the first time shortly after falling asleep.

What stage do sleep spindles occur?

Sleep spindles are characteristic electroencephalogram (EEG) signatures of stage 2 non-rapid eye movement sleep.