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What increases gingival crevicular fluid?

Enzymes and sex hormones: Female sex hormones increase the gingival fluid flow because they enhance vascular permeability. Circadian periodicity: There is gradual increase in gingival fluid amount from 6 AM to 10 PM and a decrease afterward.

Is gingival crevicular fluid normal?

Under normal conditions, about 3 μl/hour of fluid is released into the crevicular sulcus, while during periodontitis, up to 44 μl/hour of release has been reported (Goodson, 2003).

Is gingival crevicular fluid transudate or exudate?

Gingival crevicular fluid (GCF), a serum transudate or inflammatory exudate, can be collected from the gingival crevice surrounding the teeth. As such, the fluid reflects the constituents of serum, the cellular response in the periodontium, and contributions from the gingival crevice.

How do you collect gingival crevicular fluid?

The first one is performed by placing paper strips over the gingival crevice to reduce trauma. The second method is the intracrevicular technique which is the most commonly used. It may be subdivided into superficial and deep, depending on the depth of strip insertions into gingival sulcus or periodontal pocket [109].

What bacteria causes acute necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis?

If ANUG is improperly treated or neglected, it may become chronic and/or recurrent. The causative organisms are mostly anaerobic bacteria, particularly Fusobacteria and spirochete species.

What is human gingival crevicular fluid?

Gingival crevicular fluid is a serum exudate that originates from the periodontal sulcus or pocket and is regarded as a promising biological fluid for the detection of periodontal disease.

What is gingival crevicular fluid?

Gingival crevicular fluid is an inflammatory exudate derived from the periodontal tissues. It is composed of serum and locally generated materials such as tissue breakdown products, inflammatory mediators, and antibodies directed against dental plaque bacteria.

What is necrotizing gingivitis?

Necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis (NUG) is a typical form of periodontal diseases. It has an acute clinical presentation with the distinctive characteristics of rapid onset of interdental gingival necrosis, gingival pain, bleeding, and halitosis.

What are the symptoms of necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis?

Acute necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis is a painful infection of the gums. Symptoms are acute pain, bleeding, and foul breath. Diagnosis is based on clinical findings. Treatment is gentle debridement, improved oral hygiene, mouth rinses, supportive care, and, if debridement must be delayed, antibiotics.

What is GCF?

GCF is composed of variable substances that include immunoglobulin, enzymes, local mediators, toxin cells, protein peptides, tissue breakdown products, and microorganisms.

What is gingival buccal sulcus?

The sulcus is “the point at which the tooth and gums meet,” or the natural space between the surface of the tooth and the surrounding gum tissue (also known as the gingiva). The cementoenamel junction, located at the bottom of the sulcus, helps keep the gums attached to the tooth surface.