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What happened to the Métis after 1885?

Many Métis hid their identity after 1885. After 1885, however, most Métis would become socially, economically and politically marginalized. In most instances, the Métis didn’t have title to the land, and thus paid no taxes, which precluded their children from obtaining an education.

Who was the Canadian government in 1885?

On March 18, 1885, the Batoche-area Métis established a provisional government with Pierre Parenteau Sr. as chairman, Philippe Garnot (a French-Canadian) as secretary and Gabriel Dumont as the adjutant-general or military leader.

How did the Métis resistance of 1885 contribute to the creation of the pass system?

After the 1885 Northwest Rebellion (also known as the Northwest Resistance), the federal government developed the pass system — a process by which Indigenous people had to present a travel document authorized by an Indian agent in order to leave and return to their reserves.

What is the most significant impact of the 1885 Northwest Resistance?

The Marginalisation of Métis and First Nations The most pronounced impacts following the 1885 Resistance were felt in Saskatchewan with the Métis and some First Nations groups experiencing the worst of it. Following the conflict, race became a determining factor in how those living in Saskatchewan began to be treated.

What were the Métis fighting for?

During the lengthy negotiations to transfer sovereignty of the territory to Canada, Protestant settlers from the East moved into the colony. Their obtrusive, aggressive ways led the Roman Catholic Métis to want to preserve their religion, land rights and culture.

What was built in 1885 in Canada?

The railway — completed in 1885 — connected Eastern Canada to British Columbia and played an important role in the development of the nation. Built in dangerous conditions by thousands of labourers, including 15,000 Chinese temporary workers, the railway facilitated communication and transportation across the country.

Who was involved in the 1885 resistance?

Widespread anxiety regarding land claims and a changing economy provoked a resistance against the Canadian Government. Here, 300 Métis and Indians led by Louis Riel and Gabriel Dumont fought a force of 800 men commanded by Major-General Middleton between May 9 and 12, 1885.

How did the Métis become dispersed?

The Métis extinguished their Aboriginal title to the land through the Scrip system. This ensured that the Métis would be dispersed throughout the Northwest. In addition, many Métis were granted scrip land in far away places. Others were tricked into selling their land to speculators for small amounts.

Why did the Métis move west?

Those who moved west, either because they felt pressured to leave or because they saw new opportunities to make a living on the western plains, joined a Métis population that already lived in well-established communities along the North and South Saskatchewan Rivers and around many surviving fur trade posts.

Why did the Métis move to Saskatchewan from Manitoba?

After 1870, the Métis’ dispersal from Manitoba occurred for economic, political and social reasons. The bison-hunting economy of the Prairie West had by the 1870s, disappeared and commercial agriculture had not yet taken root.

How did the Battle of Batoche change Canada?

The Battle of Batoche was the decisive battle of the North-West Rebellion, which pitted the Canadian authorities against a force of First Nations and Métis people. The defeat of the defenders of Batoche and its capture led to the surrender of Louis Riel on May 15 and the collapse of the Provisional Government.

What was the average wage in Canada in the 1870s?

With many people looking for work, employers could pay low wages. An average wage for an Industrial worker in the 1870s ranged from $185 per year in Quebec to $245 per year in Ontario. Even though prices were also low, this was less than the average family needed to survive.

When did the North West Rebellion start in Canada?

Events from the year 1885 in Canada . March 30 – North-West Rebellion: The Looting of Battleford begins. It will continue until April 24 when the Militia reach the town. June 3 – North-West Rebellion: Battle of Loon Lake. The last Cree resistance is shattered.

How was the census of 1885 compiled by the BIA?

The 1885 and later censuses were compiled by the agents using forms sent by the BIA. There was supposed to be only one census for each reservation, except in a few cases where part of the reservation was in another state. The original was sent to the Commissioner of Indian Affairs; multiple copies were not created.