What does M mean on Byzantine coins?
The “M” on the reverse was the Greek alphabetic equivalent of the number 40. 30-nummi (3/4-follis) One of the unusual denominations of the Byzantine system was the 30-nummi piece (3/4-follis) shown above. In this case, its denomination is indicated with the Greek Λ, which equated 30.
What are Byzantine coins called?
In Western Europe the Byzantine gold coin was called the bezant, derived from the word Byzantium. Solidus (“solid coin”): The basic unit of the Byzantine monetary system, equaling 1/72 of one Roman pound of gold.
How do you date a Byzantine coin?
Dating Byzantine Coins He ordered that a date be placed on the reverse of the coin on the right side and on the left side the word ANNO (year).
What were Byzantine coins made of?
Byzantine coinage began effectively with the reign (491–518) of Anastasius I. Thenceforth, it consisted, in addition to gold, of silver and bronze. Silver, always rather rare, consisted of the small siliqua (1/24 of a solidus) or keration, followed by the larger miliaresion and the still larger hexagram.
What is a Nummis coin?
Nummus (Greek: νοῦμμος, noummos), plural nummi (νοῦμμοι) is a Latin term meaning “coin”, but used technically by modern writers for a range of low-value copper coins issued by the Roman and Byzantine empires during Late Antiquity.
What is a Follis coin?
1 : a Roman bronze coin of the late Empire having a silver coating and a very small value. 2 : a large bronze coin current in the Byzantine Empire under Anastasius (a.d. 491-518) that was marked with a large M.
How many denarii are in a solidus?
No gold solidi were minted after the Carolingians adopted the silver standard; thenceforward the solidus or sol was a paper accounting unit equivalent to one-twentieth of a pound (librum or livre) of silver and divided into 12 denarii or deniers.
What are Roman gold coins called?
aureus, basic gold monetary unit of ancient Rome and the Roman world. It was first named nummus aureus (“gold money”), or denarius aureus, and was equal to 25 silver denarii; a denarius equaled 10 bronze asses. (In 89 bc, the sestertius, equal to one-quarter of a denarius, replaced the bronze ass as a unit of account.)
What was imprinted in the gold Byzantine coin?
The gold coins of Justinian II departed from these stable conventions by putting a bust of Christ on the obverse, and a half or full-length portrait of the Emperor on the reverse.
What is solidus in history?
1 : an ancient Roman gold coin introduced by Constantine (4th century) and used to the fall of the Byzantine Empire (15th century) 2 [Medieval Latin, shilling, from Late Latin; from its use as a symbol for shillings] : slash sense 4.
What was the Byzantine heritage?
The Byzantine Empire had kept Greek and Roman culture alive for nearly a thousand years after the fall of the Roman Empire in the west. It had preserved this cultural heritage until it was taken up in the west during the Renaissance.
What currency did Constantine use?
The gold solidus of Constantine retained its value and served as a monetary standard for more than a thousand years.
What kind of coins did the Byzantine Empire have?
Ad 613 – 641 Heraclius & Her. Constantine Ancient Byzantine Gold Solidus Ngc Byzantine Coin. Anastasius 491 – 519 Ad. Follis. Byzantine Coin. Justinian I 527 – 565 A. D. – Bronze Follis Us194 Byzantine Coin. Leo Vi The Wise. 886 – 912 Ad. Ae Follis Us214 Ad 613 – 641 Heraclius & Her.
Where was the last Byzantine bronze coin struck?
An unusual 3-nummi piece struck for Justin I at Thessalonica is shown above. Its denomination is marked by the Greek letter Γ. The Greek letter B marks this 2-nummi piece (above) of Justinian I from Thessalonica. The last Byzantine mint we’ll examine for its odd-denominated bronzes is Cherson, in the Crimea.
What was the denomination of a Byzantine 20 nummi coin?
In this case, its denomination is indicated with the Greek Λ, which equated 30. This example was struck at Constantinople under Heraclius and Heraclius Constantine (613-641 CE). The 20-nummi coin, shown above, was commonly called a half-follis.
What was the denomination of the coins of Thessalonica?
The denomination of this 16-nummi bronze of Thessalonica, issued for Justinian I, is indicated by the Greek letters I (10) and S (6). They are flanked by the mysterious letters AP, the meaning of which still evades scholars. Another Justinian I bronze of Thessalonica is the 8-nummi piece illustrated above.