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What are the drugs that are used in spinal and epidural anesthesia?

Lidocaine, tetracaine, and bupivacaine are the local anesthetic agents most commonly employed for spinal anesthesia in the U.S. Lidocaine provides a short duration of anesthesia and is primarily useful for surgical and obstetrical procedures lasting less than one hour.

How long does a tetracaine spinal last?

Tetracaine is the longest acting spinal anesthetic. Duration of action is 2-3 hours for a plain solution. The addition of vasoconstrictors, such as epinephrine or phenylephrine (0.5 mg), increases the duration up to 5 hours for lower extremity surgical procedures.

Which drug is given in spinal anesthesia?

A drug named bupivacaine is the most commonly used local anesthetic in spinal anesthetics for Cesarean deliveries in North America. Another drug named fentanyl is the most commonly used narcotic.

How long does a spinal with bupivacaine last?

For an uncomplicated revision, 3.5-4 mL of 0.5% isobaric bupivacaine (17.5-20 mg) will reliably produce a surgical block for 3-4 hours. For potentially longer procedures, 5 mL of 0.5% isobaric bupivacaine (25 mg) will yield a surgical block for 4-6 hours.

How painful is spinal anesthesia for C section?

Although there is no pain, there may be a feeling of pressure as the needle is being inserted. For a spinal block, a physician anesthesiologist injects medication into the spinal fluid through a needle inserted in the lower back.

How long does epidural bupivacaine last?

In nerve blocks, it is injected around a nerve that supplies the area, or into the spinal canal’s epidural space. It is available mixed with a small amount of epinephrine to increase the duration of its action. It typically begins working within 15 minutes and lasts for 2 to 8 hours.

What is difference between epidural and spinal anesthesia?

Spinal anesthesia involves the injection of numbing medicine directly into the fluid sac. Epidurals involve the injection into the space outside the sac (epidural space).

How is bupivacaine administered?

Bupivacaine is injected through a needle directly into or near the area to be numbed. You will receive this injection in a dental or hospital setting. For an epidural, bupivacaine is given as an injection through a needle placed into an area of your middle or lower back near your spine.

What are the side effects of spinal anesthesia?


  • Allergic reaction to the anesthesia used.
  • Bleeding around the spinal column (hematoma)
  • Difficulty urinating.
  • Drop in blood pressure.
  • Infection in your spine (meningitis or abscess)
  • Nerve damage.
  • Seizures (this is rare)
  • Severe headache.