Socialization successful concept – the set of theoretical propositions, sound outstanding American sociologist Neil Smelser (born in 1930). On the issue of the impact of socialization process.
Neil Smelser, relying on the development of socialization theorists introduced a multilateral response of the accumulation of social experience of individuals and social attitudes, highlighting significant for sociological explanation of socialization position: socialization gives people the opportunity to interact and ensure the preservation of society in the course of generational change (Smelser, 1994). That is, the socialization has two objectives: to promote the interaction of people because of social roles and ensure the preservation of society through the assimilation of new members in its existing beliefs and patterns of behavior. Smelser treats the process of socialization through the prism of its success.
Successful socialization as Smelser notes due to three factors: expectations, changes in behavior and the desire to conform. People have almost no innate behavior, but they are endowed by their ability to learn. Cultural values of the laws to unwritten rules of etiquette govern the actions and aspirations of the people. Every society values certain personal qualities superior to others, and children learn these values through socialization. The lack of uniformity in behavior shows that in essence, socialization – a two-way, multi-directional process of forming a unique personality. There is interaction between biological factors and culture, as well as between those who carry out socialization and socialized. Summing up the debate sociobiological approaches to the analysis of socialization, Smelser explains that biology actually establishes a common framework for human nature, but within these limits, people are showing an extremely high adaptability: they learn certain patterns of behavior and create social institutions governing the use or overcoming biological factors, as well as allowing us to find a compromise solution to this problem.
Smelser emphasizes that socialization is a continuous process and is never ending, but there are differences between the socialization of children and adults. He identifies existing adaptive in sociology and developing research approaches of socialization. Supporter’s adaptive approach considers socialization as a response to the crisis. They generally believe that the change in the process of socialization in adulthood due to the fact that the experiences and crises in the life of children and adults are different. The life of adults is seen as a series of expected and unexpected crises that need to be understood and overcome. Resolution of the crisis does not always help to sustain the next. Developing an approach implies that the process of socialization is not confined to adults overcoming of the crisis and the transition to the next. Proponents of this approach believe that crises provide the foundation for further growth, which is a constant personal growth in the process of socialization.
Smelser is not limited to the understanding of socialization as a person of ascending. It defines such an important characteristic of it as re-socialization, re-socialization of calling the assimilation of new values, roles, skills, instead of the previous, outdated or inadequate lessons. Agents of socialization, by Smelser, are social institutions, individuals and groups that promote socialization. Socialization can never be effective one hundred percent. Successful or unsuccessful socialization depends on how it worked all the components of the conditions and factors.