Sophiology (in sociology, philosophy) religious and philosophical doctrine, philosophical theory involving “positive unity”, whose founders were VladimirSolovyov, Bulgakov, PA Florensky, Karsavin and others.
Russian religious philosophy of the XIX and XX centuries. Has contributed to the development of philosophical thought on the problems of moral and ethical formation of society. The writings of the followers of Russian religious philosophy of an important part of building a just society was thought of religion and spiritual and moral rebirth of man. Following Chaadayev preserved building the Kingdom of God on earth projects, which were formed in sophiology.
Contemporaries of the period considered by VS Solovyov (1853-1900) the central figure of Russian philosophy. VS Solovyov criticized existing before hisphilosophy of abstraction and took its extreme manifestations such as empiricism and rationalism. Solov’ev put forward the idea of a positive unity, which is headed by God. Fortunately, he had seen as a manifestation of the will, as a manifestation of the truth of reason, beauty as an expression of feelings. The philosopher of God controls this material world, where the person acts as a link between God and nature created by God, but imperfect. Human life is a movement towards the Absolute, the Truth movement. The moral activity of man is manifested in the love of nature, to another person and to God. One of the features of the philosophical teachings VS Solovyov was the definition of the “Russian idea” as a moral and the moral foundations of unity of the Russian people. In the eponymous work by VS Solovyov develops the ideas of the church association, briefly referring to the work set out in the late 1870’s early 80-ies. “Reading about God-manhood”, “The Great Debate and Christian politics”, a cycle of journalistic articles “The National Question in Russia” and others.)
Theological and socio-political principles.
Defining the concept of “value”, VS Solovyov organizes the famous philosophical experience in the interpretation of the term, and followed by many philosophers of different historical periods of the relationship holds definition of values and concepts of good. Religion and morality are thought of them in unity. He believes that good, suggesting the presence of faith in this sense is an objective, universal category. Moral perfection, to convince VS Soloveva identically the process of progressive development, social progress identically defining social progress as “improving life in terms of the moral sense.” The impetus for social development, moral perfection, is, according to the philosopher, the Christian ideal. The basis of morality VS Solovyov seen in the theological virtues. Virtue, according to VS Solovyov, can be primary (faith, hope, love) and secondary (generosity, selflessness, tolerance, honesty). At the same time, “each of the recognized virtues is not moral in itself, but only in correlation with shame, pity and reverence.” The root of morality VS Soloveva seen in the conscience, he writes: “The primary basis of conscience is a sense of shame.” Thus, based on a system of moral philosophy VS Solovyov based on three qualities or human abilities, which he calls the primary principles of morality: shame, pity and reverence. The philosopher believes that they these primary moral principles given to man by nature, each of them reflects different sides of human moral experience. VS Soloviev believed that the nature of man has all the necessary foundation for good, but good is not universal, and final implementation and is in constant struggle with evil. Analyzing the good of humanity through history, VS Solovyev emphasizes that the moral formation of the person, the development of society are constantly associated with the process of the struggle between good and evil caused by the selfish motives of people. To resist the selfishness of people, according to the philosopher, can only the Will, standing over a man. In this sense, VS Solovyov asserts the existence of absolute truth, thus denying him a modern concept, seeking to adopt the position of “temporary end-interests.” VS Soloviev does not aim to systematize the well-known theory of the moral formation of the person, but it is clearly defined category of values as a predetermined, absolute, impossible to change human society, and therefore, social development, he believed the human process of rapprochement with the values through the thorns of human selfishness by the Higher Will.
System doctrine “philosophy of unity” in relation to the problem of personality, methodology of history, culture, history, epistemology, ethics, sociology, and integrity in the context of the Christian worldview belongs to another representative of Russian religious philosophy LP Karsavina (1882-1952).
In his writings, Karsavin relied on early Christian doctrine, and Russian religious philosophy, especially in the tradition of VS Solovyov. This doctrine LP Karsavina not focused on the individual as such, but on the involvement of the individual in the social system of a different order, arising in this connection the relationship and have finally, in his opinion, influence on the formation and development of the personality.
According Karsavin “lower order Personality improves itself by interacting with the higher, joining them; to improve every person must realize itself as the free exercise of the supreme personality, t. e. the wider community. The individual. The individual occupies in the hierarchy of symphonic personalities most subordinate position, making the foot of the pyramid, the most massive and imperfect it level. Thus, in the teaching of LP Karsavina postulated. Philosopher detract from the value of the personality of an individual moral development, but it strengthens the role of society, social relations and their influence on the formation of the individual, on its development. In the philosophy of values, Karsavin introduces the concept of “value factor” contributing, in his opinion, the formation of the individual in the context of their specific sociometrist system “I You”. In his writings Karsavin, after its predecessor, and is considering the theme of “Russian idea” as a possible factor of value unity of Russian society. In philosophy, LP Karsavina number of values is interpreted, in fact, society itself, that is, first, the subject, and secondly, variability, as it may have different interpretations, depending on the community. In this context, in the context of the definition of value, Karsavin departs from value of the Absolute philosophy VS Solovyov.