Parsons identifies three main stages of the socialization process in relation to American society (each of which is subdivided into two sub): the first takes place in the family, the second is concentrated in primary and secondary schools, and the third in colleges, in the universities and vocational schools. After passing the first major phase of socialization, the child acquires the necessary concept of the main structure of the nuclear family as a social system, which is the prototype of the social system. Theorist suggests that the educational system in primary and secondary schools, primary socialization process is repeated at the next higher level of generalization digestible culture and organization of the social structure. Thus, high school is primarily concerned with the differentiation of the distinction between instrumental types of roles at this level of the organization. In this regard, Parsons stresses: “It is significant that here there is, so to speak, a complete” youth culture “main line differentiations goes between the representatives of the age group that is more oriented to the achievement of the school and the formal” training and those who are focused mainly on the structure of the peer group, in the “leadership”, “popular” and so forth “(ibid: 61)… According to Parsons, the system of formal education is central to the internalization systems of higher order of social organization than at the family level. This stage is influenced by socialization rather “impersonal” and universal forms of control than the “private” and indefinite forms of family interaction. With regard to higher education, Parsons notes that there is “all students and the high and low achievers, though they differ greatly in their academic work usually stick together on the basis of” youth culture while in the public school and having a common extracurricular and informal loyalty This can help build a basis of common solidarity that goes beyond the professional differences that have become apparent “(ibid: 63).
Most significantly in the outlined concept that: 1) the process of socialization is associated with a continuous series of reference groups, which suggests that the structural analysis “becomes an important part of the analysis of one of the most” dynamic “social processes development of persons” (ibid: 65 2)the type dichotomization is both an important mechanism for placing people in the status structure of society, while at the same time and part of the process of formation of various personality types, which are differently adapted to the different types of roles, which implies the closest relationship of the individual and social structures; 3) overall current structural principle is “the selection to the bottom” “This means writes Parsons that process dichotomization age group distinguishes one group, whose members are more likely to want to remain at this level of the social hierarchy, on the other hand, the members of which would to go to the next, higher level. the group, which has been “enhanced”, and then again becomes a subject of the same selection pressure and type again divided along the same lines. It can be seen that the selection process in general corresponds to the personal needs of the “pyramid” built a system in which a relatively large number of people “must be” at the lower levels of the organization, and fewer and fewer as they move to higher levels. The selection process, including the element of “mobility” and the element of class, so that is most closely associated with the preservation of society stratification models “(ibid).
In accordance with this theoretical scheme, Parsons treats the peer group (peer group) an informal group, membership in which is determined by common social and status characteristics (gender, age, ethnicity, occupation, etc.). In research practice the concept of peer group; typically apply to the age groups of children and youth, particularly with regard to teenage groups, where the status of equality becomes essential for each member of the group.
Even if Parsons and attaches importance to personal choice behavior strategies, it is based on a typical unity of social systems, they may be formed at any level. In addition, across the country, and family friendly company-wide or apply the same functional relationships. The Group uses a variety of ways to keep themselves and rebuild it coming newcomers in their own way. Parsons called such methods of socialization mechanisms. They include all the tools and the processes through which passed the one side and absorbed other cultural patterns. This is the language, values, beliefs, symbols. Having learned their new team members and changing the structure of demand. They get used to the new social roles, acquire a taste for their execution, they are now not just a subject to group norms, but they want it. This is how the system interacts with the personal social system (Parsons, 1964: 205-208).
Therefore, the concept of Parsons Socialization is a process that ensures the preservation and functioning of social systems at all levels of social life. Although this process is related to the person, his origins and consequences mainly due to the structure of society and its institutions.
Parsons Theory of socialization is his most important contribution to the development of theories of youth Kovalev, 1996; Lukow, 2007, 2012).