Social subjectivity of youth young people’s ability to exercise independent initiative in society, due to the presence of a specific purpose, the appropriate motivation, self-developed mechanism, awareness of their roles and responsibilities, as well as the presence of a conscious positive life strategies.
The concept of “subjectivity” is stated in the sociology of youth since the 1980’s. When it entered the circle of the basic terms of youth concept put forward by the Polish scientists and B. Milyanovskim (Karwat, Milanowski, 1981ab), humanistic concept of youth IM Elias (Ilyinsky, 2001), the youth movement Val theory. A. Lukov (Lukow, 1987) and a number of other theoretical constructs. Feature introduced when the term was that he was in the literature generally perceived as equal to the term “subjectivity” “subjective factor”, “subjective positions” and so on. D.) And in the form opposed to the objective basis of human activity, it recognized secondary, it does not express the essence of social processes, irregular. On the contrary, in these works on the sociology of youth subjectivity at the level of the concept of shared subjectivity and expresses significant base in the treatment of young people. Thus, identifying the specifics of the social subjectivity of youth is central to the concept of youth thesaurus shaft. A. Lukov (Lukow, 2007; 2012), and it has been supported in the literature (Krivoruchenko, Yakovlev, 2012ab; Vybornova 2013; Kovalev, Levicheva 2014).
Subjectivity. Theoretical and methodological basis of “subjectivity” of the concept was developed in the framework of subject-activity approach in psychological science. The founder of this approach is eminent psychologist SL Rubinstein, who first presented his ideas in 1922 in his article “The principles of creative self.” In the future, this approach has been the development of his works, including “Fundamentals of General Psychology”, “Being and consciousness”, “Man and the World”, as well as in the writings of his followers, such as KA Abulkhanova and AV Brushlinskii. According to Rubinstein, originally “the subject it is experiencing the different perceptions, thoughts, feelings, aspirations, intentions, desires, and so forth” (Rubinstein 2009: 10). In the future, “consciously distinguish themselves from the environment and correlating with him, man becomes the subject in the true sense of the word” (ibid: 10). Rubinstein-based research stated: a man is not only in a certain relation to the world and is determined by them, but also belongs to the world, and he defines this attitude, what is conscious and self-determination rights. In general determination being turned on the man as a conscious world of being, the subject of consciousness and action. Conscious regulation aimed at changing the ambient, the breaking of the world and their own actions through the mind that is basic for the understanding of the problem of human freedom and determination being “(Rubinstein 2003: 371).
He emphasized, “subject to their deeds, not only reveals and manifests itself in the creative acts of initiative; it is built up in them and determined “(quoted in. Brushlinskii 1991: 9).
Such an interpretation of the subject contains the possibility and the need to understand subjectivity as it is an essential characteristic.
Social subjectivity. Under the social subjectivity, as defined by Val. A. Lukov, understood as “the ability of society, social groups, a person to serve as the active principle (figure creator) social reality” (Lukow, 2012: 320). Lukow constructs the notion of “social subjectivity”, based on an analogy with the established in jurisprudence the concept of “legal personality”, which refers to the ability of individuals to be the bearer of legal rights and obligations. Legal personality is divided into legal capacity. Accordingly, the concept of social subjectivity can be viewed from two sides: subject to the possession of socially determined capability to the social activity and the ability to implement it yourself” (ibid: 321). Thus, in this case we can speak at least two main aspects of social learning level of subjectivity of the person the possibility (or external to the individual factors) and capacity (inner personality factors). In the same direction (with the release of the two sides), the concept of social subjectivity can be developed with reference not only to the individual but also to other social actors groups, communities, society as a whole.
Social subjectivity youth. This approach is applied to the social subjectivity of youth, attaches special importance (under the first criterion “the possession of the subject socially determined features to social activities”), the social status of youth, which largely determines the opportunities for social activities.
AI Kovaleva identifies the following characteristics of the social status of youth: 1. In the social status of the young prevails not acquired, as prescribed by its component; 2. Social status is dynamic and promising youth, including through a process of social appropriation of subjectivity; 3. The Company is predetermined inequality status of younger and older age groups of young people. For young people of different ages revealed varying degrees of acquisition of rights and obligations, that is primarily associated with different volume and capacity with a number of specially established rights and responsibilities of youth and young adults (Kovalev, Lukow, 1999: 264).
Since social status reflects the possibility of the social subjectivity, the degree of opportunities for young people will depend primarily on how open is this society and whether young people to express themselves in it, and whether the youth potential of the society is recognized as a public good and a source of positive innovation or young people are recognized as a public danger. Depending on this, the youth can both receive all the new opportunities for the manifestation of subjectivity, and to endure the hardships of reinforced public control, narrowing or excluding such manifestations. A similar interpretation of the social subjectivity of youth and in the aspect of social roles. The social role is mainly defined by social status, expressing its dynamic characteristics, and appears in the appropriate public expectations to the one who has this status.