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How common is HLA-DQ8?

Moreover, in the general population who do not have the diagnosis of CD, HLA-DQ2 and/or HLA-DQ8 is present in approximately 40% of the population, and this percentage increases among patients who are not celiac but has first-degree relatives with celiac disease.

What is DQ2 and DQ8?

“HLA-DQ2 and HLA-DQ8 are the names of two genetic markers which are part of the immune system and are able to stick to the gluten proteins. Every person with celiac disease has at least one of these genetic markers.

What are HLA in type 1 diabetes?

Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is one of the most widely studied complex genetic disorders, and the genes in HLA are reported to account for approximately 40% to 50% of the familial aggregation of T1D. The major genetic determinants of this disease are polymorphisms of class II HLA genes encoding DQ and DR.

What is HLA diabetes?

The class II gene products, HLA-DR3 and DR4, may be the primary susceptibility genes for IDDM. They mediate the pathogenetical immune mechanisms which, under the additional influence of special MHC-genes of class I and III, lead to diabetes.

How many people have HLA-DQ8?

Approximately 30%–40% of Western populations carry HLA DQ2 or DQ8, while only 1% is affected by CD. About 90% of individuals with CD carry HLA-DQ2.

Which is the highest risk HLA-DR or HLA DQ?

The DR-DQ types contributing the most risk are HLA-DRB1*03 (DR3), typically observed in haplotypic association with DQA1*05:01-DQB1*02:01 (DQ2), and HLA-DRB1*04 (DR4) in haplotypic association with DQA1*03-DQB1*03:02 (DQ8). The highest risk is seen in individuals who are heterozygous for these types.

How are HLA-DQ8 and proinsulin-specific T cells related?

Hence, proinsulin-specific, HLA-DQ8, and HLA-DQ8-transdimer–restricted CD4 + T cells are strongly implicated in the autoimmune pathogenesis of human T1D.

Are there any epitopes of HLA-DQ2 / DQ8 transdimers?

Because the epitopes presented by HLA-DQ2/-DQ8 transdimers have not been identified, these possibilities remain speculative.

When do you need HLA typing for Type 1 diabetes?

HLA typing also is required in genetic studies aimed at determining the molecular basis of T1D susceptibility, such as those performed by the Type 1 Diabetes Genetics Consortium (T1DGC) ( 5 ). However, the high cost of HLA genotyping not only is a major imposition on such large-scale programs but also is beyond the reach of small research groups.