What is a calorie
Calories – a measure of the energy supplied into the body. One calorie is enough for heating one milliliter of water to one degree Centigrade. But this is a very small quantity, so the calculation is generally carried out in kilocalories (1 kilocalorie = 1000 calories).
Body energy is required for the following needs:
- for biochemical reactions, which are generally combined with one concept of metabolism(anabolism and catabolism); without proper metabolism any cell in our body can not function properly;
- to individual organs and systems to perform their function: The heart muscle contracts, the lungs provide oxygen to the body, the liver detoxifies, gastrointestinal tract to digest food;
- for daily routine work; and it is different for each person: someone is doing the work sitting at a computer, and someone is digging the ground, engaged in professional sports; respectively, and the energy consumption for these categories of people are different, so they should get a different number of calories in food.
If a person gets more calories than consumed, they will be deposited in the form of fat cells in reserve (it is really a strategic energy reserve in case of famine, the body produces it on an unconscious level). That is why count calories that prevent the formation of reserves.
Does the quality of the food has any impact?
Yet it has, today it is believed that food should be rational or balanced. Everyone should consume quality food with proper amount of carbohydrates. In this case, the body will get enough energy, but to spend it at the cellular level the body needs some proteins too. Without fat it is also impossible, because they are necessary for the proper functioning of different proteins, enzymes etc in the process of metabolism. Vitamins and minerals are part of enzymes and hormones – substances, without which the body can not work. With proper rational balanced diet the proteins should account for about 12% of daily calories for carbohydrates – about 55% from fat – about 33%. But these rules are designed for people living in temperate climates. Those who live in northern latitudes, should have a few more (about 5%) is fat, to maintain the body’s heat, and living in southern latitudes – the same amount less fat.
The basic principle of good nutrition – is to ensure the body with all the necessary food ingredients to ensure proper metabolism and energy balance. Therefore excluded from the diet foods that do not benefit the body, but on the contrary, carry with them a large amount of extra calories. It is greasy and sweet food, that is refractory fat meat and carbohydrate (sugar).
How to calculate the right amount of calories per day
On the “average” of one kilogram of body weight per hour requires 1 kilo-calories. With a weight of 60 kg woman, it will take 60 x 24 = 1440 kcal. But energy is required not only for cell metabolism. Yet it is required for the digestion of food (200 kcal per day), for a total to serve the needs of the body of a woman weighing 60 kg requires daily 1640 kcal. In men, the more intense metabolism, so they need to add another 200 calories.
But energy is still required and the fact that something to do during the day – to move and perform their daily work. For different activities require different amounts of calories. Men need more calories than women, pregnant women require an increased amount of calories, and the elder persons requires less amount of energy, as they do not have any difficult task to perform, which requires more energy.
Calorie intake per day for different categories of persons is as follows:
- babies – about 800 kcal to year;
- from 12 to 18 months – 1330 kcal;
- from 18 months to 3 years – 1480 kcal;
- 3 to 4 years – 1800 kcal;
- 5 to 6 years – 1990 kcal;
- from 7 to 10 years – 2380 kcal;
- from 11 to 13 years – 2860 kcal;
- from 14 to 17 years – 3160 kcal boys and girls 2760;
- pregnant women – 3200 kcal;
- women during lactation – 3500 kcal;
- Students – 3,300 kcal and 2,800 kcal men women;
- 4500 kcal athletes, men and women 3500 kcal;
- workers of heavy physical labor (men) – 4500-5000 kcal.
Anyone who wants to lose weight and maintain a healthy lifestyle , it is necessary to calculate the amount of calories eaten. Over time, this will become a habit and will be not burdensome.