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What is the mechanism of substitution reaction?

The substitution reaction is defined as a reaction in which the functional group of one chemical compound is substituted by another group or it is a reaction which involves the replacement of one atom or a molecule of a compound with another atom or molecule.

Which step is the rate determine step in the mechanism of electrophilic substitution reaction?

Explanation: Attack by an electrophilic reagent on benzene ring is a rate determining step in electrophilic substitution reaction. It is also the slowest step of the reaction.

What is SE2 mechanism?

The electrophilic substitution bimolecular mechanisms are termed SE2 mechanisms. Analogues to SN2 reactions these reactions follow bimolecular rate kinetics, where the reaction rate is first order in substrate and first order in the electrophile when both reactants are in dilute solutions.

What is the difference between electrophilic and nucleophilic substitution reaction?

Electrophilic substitutions involve displacement of a functional group by an electrophile (generally a hydrogen atom). Nucleophilic substitutions involve attack of a positively charged (or partially positively charged) atom or group by a nucleophile. Nucleophiles are species that can donate an electron pair.

What is electrophilic substitution give the mechanism for the nitration of aniline?

In the electrophilic substitution reaction of aniline, the aniline is often called para directing and ortho directing because the electrophile usually adds with the ortho position and para position. Bromination, sulphonation, and nitration are the common electrophilic substitution reaction of anilines.

What is aliphatic SE2 reaction?

Introduction. Electrophilic aliphatic substitution reactions are chemical reactions in which an electrophile (an electron deficient species) removes a functional group in a compound. The electrophilic substitution bimolecular mechanisms are termed SE2 mechanisms.

Which is an example of an electrophilic substitution reaction?

Electrophilic Aromatic Substitution Reaction. There exist many types of electrophilic aromatic substitution reactions, the most important of which include: Aromatic nitration reactions. Electrophilic aromatic halogenation reactions. Aromatic sulfonation reactions. Friedel-Crafts alkylation reaction. Friedel-Crafts acylation reaction.

How is a proton removed from an electrophilic aromatic substitution?

Step 2: A proton is removed from this intermediate via an electrophile elimination reaction, yielding a substituted benzene ring Also, an animated diagram of this mechanism may be viewed. This mechanism for electrophilic aromatic substitution should be considered in context with other mechanisms involving carbocation intermediates.

How is sulfuric acid used in electrophilic aromatic substitution?

Sulfuric acid (H 2 SO 4) is used as a catalyst in this process. The acid is used to protonate the nitric acid which leads to the formation of a nitronium ion. The nitronium ion can then be processed as per the mechanism of electrophilic aromatic substitution reaction.

How is the carbocation intermediate stabilized in electrophilic aromatic substitution?

The carbocation intermediate in electrophilic aromatic substitution (the Wheland intermediate) is stabilized by charge delocalization (resonance) so it is not subject to rearrangement.