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What is the management of tetanus?

The principles of management of tetanus include sedation and control of muscle spasms, neutralization of tetanus toxin, prevention of production of tetanus toxin by use of antibiotics to which Clostridium tetani is susceptible and by wound debridement, treatment of complications, including autonomic dysfunction, and …

What is the most effective treatment for tetanus?

Sedative-hypnotic agents are the mainstays of tetanus treatment. Benzodiazepines are the most effective primary agents for muscle spasm prevention and work by enhancing gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) inhibition. Diazepam is the most frequently studied and used drug. Lorazepam is an effective alternative.

What is Generalised tetanus?

Generalized tetanus is the most common form of tetanus, occurring in approximately 80% of cases. Patients present with a descending pattern of muscle spasms, first presenting with lockjaw, and risus sardonicus (rigid smile because of sustained contraction of facial musculature).

What is the initial treatment for tetanus?

If tetanus does develop, seek hospital treatment immediately. This includes wound care, a course of antibiotics, and an injection of tetanus antitoxin. You may receive medications such as chlorpromazine or diazepam to control muscle spasms, or a short-acting barbiturate for sedation.

Can ATS be given IV?

Therapeutic Use: For therapy, large doses 100,000 – 200,000 IU of antitoxin should be given very slowly by intravenous route followed by smaller weekly doses intramuscularly as required. Some physicians prefer a smaller initial dose of 20,000 IU or so intramuscularly.

What are three principles that can be used for the management of tetanus?

Treatment in tetanus is based on several key principles: a) sedation and paralysis to control the progressive spasms and autonomic dysfunction and to avoid exhaustion; b) surgical debridement and antibiotic treatment for the source of infection; c) neutralization of the circulating toxin; and c) supportive care in an …

Which type of vaccine is given in tetanus?

Tdap vaccine — protects against diphtheria, tetanus, and whooping cough (for preteens, teens, and adults) (Other Languages )

Which antibiotics treat tetanus?

Antibiotics in tetanus Antibiotics are administered to patients with tetanus on the presumption that it prevents local proliferation of C. tetani at the wound site. The antibiotics that can be used include penicillin G, metronidazole and doxycycline.

Is tetanus Gram positive or Gram negative?

tetani bacterium is a spore-forming, gram-positive, slender, anaerobic rod. The organism is sensitive to heat and cannot survive in the presence of oxygen. The spores, in contrast, are extremely resistant to heat and the usual antiseptics. They can survive autoclaving at 249.8°F (121°C) for 10 to 15 minutes.

Is ATS and TT same?

The use of antitoxin gives protection for 1 to 3 weeks only. While tetanus vaccine gives long time immunity and is cheaper and practically free from reactions. It is also adviced that simultanously with the administration of the prophylactic dose of tetanus antitoxin active immunization should be started.

What route is ATS given?

Tetanus antitoxin is given as prophylaxis to the persons at risk with infected wounds, wounds contaminated with soil or mud, deep or punctured wounds and wounds with devitalising tissue damages. A dose of 1,500 IU should be given subcutaneously or intramuscularly as early as possible after the wound is received.

Which is the best treatment for generalized tetanus?

Therapeutic TIG (3,000-6,000 units as 1 dose) has also been recommended for generalized tetanus.Other treatment measures include ventilatory support, high-calorie nutritional support, and pharmacologic agents that treat reflex muscle spasms, rigidity, tetanic seizures and infections.

How much Tig should I take for tetanus?

It should be kept in mind that TIG can only help remove unbound tetanus toxin; it cannot affect toxin bound to nerve endings. A single intramuscular (IM) dose of 3000-5000 units is generally recommended for children and adults, with part of the dose infiltrated around the wound if it can be identified.

What should a doctor do for a tetanus wound?

Wounds containing devitalized tissue (e.g., necrotic or gangrenous wounds), frostbite, crush injuries, avulsion fractures, and burns are particularly conducive for proliferation of C. tetani. Clinicians should clean all wounds, remove dirt or foreign material, and remove or debride necrotic material.

How long does it take to recover from tetanus?

Treatment consists of wound care, medications to ease symptoms and supportive care, usually in an intensive care unit. The disease progresses for about two weeks, and recovery can last about a month.