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What is the greatest concern with patient controlled analgesia PCA by proxy?

Although PCA by proxy has been reported to lead to high patient satisfaction and compliance of the proxy in cases of children under the age of 5, children with neuromuscular impairment, or during painful procedures (18, 37), it may also lead to oversedation of the patient and other adverse events if the patient …

Does meperidine have a toxic metabolite?

Meperidine (Demerol) has a unique profile in that it has a toxic metabolite, normeperidine, that has a longer half-life than the parent drug but no analgesic effects. Normeperidine can accumulate to toxic levels in patients with hepatic or renal dysfunction.

What are the most common medications used for patient controlled analgesia?

In most cases, PCA pumps supply opioid pain-controlling medicines such as morphine, fentanyl and hydromorphone. The pump is attached to a thin, flexible tube (intravenous or IV line) that is placed in your vein.

Is patient-controlled analgesia safe?

PCA is safe and effective. The main risk is having a reaction to the opioid medicine. Side effects from opioids include: Allergic reaction.

Who can administer patient care analgesia to a patient?

Who Can Use the PCA Pump? Patients recovering from surgery often are equipped with PCA pumps. The machines also can be used by people coping with other kinds of pain. Children who are 4 to 6 years old may be able to use PCA with the help of a parent or nurse.

What is Norpethidine used for?

MEPERIDINE hydrochloride is an opioid frequently used to treat acute pain. Normeperidine is its only metabolite that has significant pharmacologic activity.

Which of the following analgesic medications should be used with caution in patients with hepatic disease?

Paracetamol is safe in patients with chronic liver disease but a reduced dose of 2-3 g/d is recommended for long-term use. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are best avoided because of risk of renal impairment, hepatorenal syndrome, and gastrointestinal hemorrhage.

How is patient controlled analgesia administered?

With this type of pain treatment, a needle attached to an IV (intravenous) line is placed into one of your veins. A computerized pump attached to the IV lets you release pain medicine by pressing a handheld button. PCA can be used in the hospital to ease pain after surgery.

What drugs are commonly used for IV PCA?

Morphine is the most studied and most commonly used intravenous drug for PCA. In spite of the fact that it is the ‘first choice’ for PCA, other opioids have been successfully used for this option.