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What is the difference between the Umayyad and Abbasid empires?

A major difference between the two dynasties lies in their attitude towards Muslims and non Muslims. Umayyad Muslims are referred to as Sunni Muslims while Abbasid Muslims are called the Shiites. • Abbasid had been content with inherited empire while Umayyad’s were aggressive and espoused expansion militarily.

What did the Abbasid and Umayyad Empires have in common?

1. They were both Islamic dynasties that controlled enormous amounts of land. 2. The leaders of these dynasties were known as caliphs, and these dynasties are also referred to as caliphates.

What were the names of the 3 Islamic caliphates?

During the medieval period, three major caliphates succeeded each other: the Rashidun Caliphate (632–661), the Umayyad Caliphate (661–750), and the Abbasid Caliphate (750–1517).

What is a similarity between the Abbasid and Umayyad Islamic empires?

Both the Umayyad and Abbasid Empires professed the Muslim faith. The two empires trace their origins to Prophet Muhammad (SAW), either through family ties or religion. In both empires, Muslims were exempt from some taxes applied to non-Muslims. Both empires fell through conquest.

How did the Abbasid social hierarchy differ from the Umayyad social hierarchy?

How did the Abbasid social hierarchy differ from the Umayyad social hierarchy? The main thing the Abbasids did was to get rid of the distinction between Arab Muslims and non-Arab Muslims. During the Umayyads, the only way to get rich and powerful was to be a Sunni, Arab Muslim. The Abbasids made all Muslims equal.

What was the main system of governance of Umayyads in history?

Umayyad rule was divided between two branches of the family: the Sufyānids (reigned 661–684), descendants of Abū Sufyān; and the Marwanids (reigned 684–750), Marwān I ibn al-Hakam and his successors. The Sufyānids, notably Muʿāwiyah I (reigned 661–680), centralized caliphal authority in Damascus.

Who founded Umayyad dynasty?

Muʿāwiyah ibn Abī Sufyān
It was established by Muʿāwiyah ibn Abī Sufyān, a native of Mecca and a contemporary of the Prophet Muḥammad. The Umayyad dynasty lasted less than a century in Damascus before it was driven out in 750 by the ʿAbbāsid dynasty.

How did the Abbasid dynasty differ from the Umayyad dynasty quizlet?

the Umayyads were a conquering dynasty, whereas the Abbasids’ political and economic opportunities were much more cosmopolitan and allowed for more diversity.

Who joined the Abbasids against the Umayyads?

At this time Kufa was the center for the opposition to Umayyad rule, particularly Ali’s supporters and Shias. In 741–42 Abu Muslim made his first contact with Abbasid agents there, and eventually he was introduced to the head of Abbasids, Imam Ibrahim, in Mecca.

What does Abbasid mean in history?

: a member of a dynasty of caliphs (750–1258) ruling the Islamic empire especially from their capital Baghdad and claiming descent from Abbas the uncle of Muhammad.

When did the Abbasids overthrew the Umayyad dynasty?

Key Points The Abbasids overthrew the Umayyad dynasty in 750 CE, supporting the mawali, or non-Arab Muslims, by moving the capital to Baghdad in 762 CE. The Persian bureaucracy slowly replaced the old Arab aristocracy as the Abbasids established the new positions of vizier and emir to delegate their central authority.

What kind of buildings did the Umayyads build?

The Umayyads also constructed famous buildings such as the Dome of the Rock at Jerusalem and the Umayyad Mosque at Damascus. According to one common view, the Umayyads transformed the caliphate from a religious institution (during the Rashidun) to a dynastic one.

How big was the Umayyad empire in square miles?

At its greatest extent, the Umayyad Caliphate covered 5.79 million square miles and included 62 million people (29% of the world’s population), making it the fifth largest empire in history in both area and proportion of the world’s population.

What did the Umayyads do to the non Muslims?

Some Muslims thought that Umayyad taxation and administrative practices were unjust. While the non-Muslim population had autonomy, their judicial matters were dealt with in accordance with their own laws and by their own religious heads or their appointees. Non-Muslims paid a poll tax for policing to the central state.