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What is areas of endemism?

Areas of endemism (AoE) are the main study units in analytical biogeographic methods, and are often defined as an area with two or more endemic species living in them, presenting substantial congruence among their range limits.

What is parsimony analysis of endemicity?

Parsimony analysis of endemicity (PAE) is the most widely used. It constructs cladograms based on the cladistic analysis of presence–absence data matrices of species and supraspecific taxa. Several authors have criticized PAE, usually because they have misunderstood its theoretical basis.

How is endemism measured?

The proportion of endemic species to the total number of species living a given area is the most frequently used measure to rank areas according to their relative endemism. However, the use of residuals may lead to areas being identified as hotspots for almost every size class of richness.

What are the factors of endemism?

Factors and processes that increase endemism, in general, are related to biological traits and environmental conditions. Biological traits are, for example, life-form and life-cycle, genome and genetical processes, pollination, production of propagules and dispersal mode.

What causes endemism?

Endemism is caused by historical and ecological factors. In many cases biological factors, such as low rates of dispersal or returning to the spawning area (philopatry), can cause a particular group of organisms to have high speciation rates and thus many endemic species.

What are the characteristics of endemism?

Endemism means the confinement of a particular species, genus, or groups of plants and animals to a particular area. Taxa occurring only a single restricted geographical area is known as endemics, Endemism normally applied only where there is a considerable restriction in the area of distribution.

What are theories of endemism?

Theories of Endemism: There are 2 main theories of Endemism. The first theory believes that the last survivors of once flourishing flora which is now declining are the relics or epibiotics which are endemics. However, second theory believes that these are recent and youthful forms in course of gradual extinction.