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What are the 5 steps of apoptosis?


  • Cell shrinks.
  • Cell fragments.
  • Cytoskeleton collapses.
  • Nuclear envelope disassembles.
  • Cells release apoptotic bodies.

How apoptosis is induced?

Induction of apoptosis. Intrinsic apoptosis is activated by internal DNA damage within the cell. Potential causes of this DNA damage are UV light and reactive oxygen species. Extrinsic apoptosis is activated by binding of ligands to “death receptors”.

How long does it take to induce apoptosis?

If you induce apoptosis with high concentrations of TRAIL it is all executed within 4 h, if you use staurosporin v.s. cisplatin or proteasome inhibitors etc… usually it takes around 24 hours. If you are using cells like MCF7, which are deficient of caspase 3 then the time doubles, and the cells take 48 hours to die.

What is the execution phase of apoptosis?

The execution phase of apoptosis is initiated by the cleavage of Caspase-3 and results in destruction of the nucleus, DNA fragmentation, degradation of cytoskeletal and proteins, chromatin condensation, formation of apoptotic bodies, expression of ligands for phagocytic cell receptors and finally uptake by phagocytic …

How do fibroblasts induce apoptosis?

Apoptosis of cultured fibroblasts can be induced by growth factor deprivation, inhibition of protein kinases, or alteration of ECM-fibroblast interactions (5, 6, 7, 8).

What is the first stage of apoptosis?

First, the cell receipts the signal that triggers the pathway to apoptosis. Second, the cell can still be rescued if it is exposed to survival factors. Third stage, in which the rescue is not possible; and fourth, finally occurs disassemble of the cell into membrane-enclosed vesicles.

What is the signal for apoptosis to begin?

Apoptosis is triggered when cell-surface death receptors such as Fas are bound by their ligands (the extrinsic pathway) or when Bcl2-family proapoptotic proteins cause the permeabilization of the mitochondrial outer membrane (the intrinsic pathway).

Can apoptosis be initiated by cytokines?

Of the cytokines mentioned, TNF is the only one capable of directly inducing cellular apoptosis through a well-characterized signaling pathway. More recently, several studies have shown that with particular combinations of inflammatory cytokines, there is a potentiation of cytotoxicity.

What do executioner caspases do?

Executioner caspases degrade over 600 cellular components in order to induce the morphological changes for apoptosis. Examples of caspase cascade during apoptosis: Intrinsic apoptopic pathway: During times of cellular stress, mitochondrial cytochrome c is released into the cytosol.