If you don’t like to read, you haven’t found the right book

How do you know if bacterial peritonitis is spontaneous?

The diagnosis of SBP is established based on positive ascitic fluid bacterial cultures and the detection of an elevated absolute fluid polymorphonuclear neutrophil (PMN) count in the ascites (>250/mm3) without an evident intra-abdominal surgically treatable source of infection [1, 9].

How do you rule out spontaneous bacterial peritonitis?

To rule out the possible presence of SBP, a paracentesis tap should also be repeated in all ascitic cirrhotic patients with gastrointestinal bleeding or hepatic encephalopathy, and whenever patients develop clinical symptoms and signs of infection, renal impairment or an unexplained worsening of their clinical …

How do you calculate PMN in ascitic fluid?

The absolute PMN count in the ascitic fluid is calculated by multiplying the total white blood cell count (or total “nucleated cell” count) by the percentage of PMNs in the differential.

What concentration of neutrophils in an ascitic tap would indicate starting antibiotics for spontaneous bacterial peritonitis?

The ascitic fluid acquired by paracentesis cytologic analysis remains the gold standard for diagnosis, and more than 250 to 500 PMNs/mL is considered pathognomonic for SBP.

What causes spontaneous bacterial peritonitis?

Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis can occur when bacteria that normally live in the intestine enter the abdominal cavity and the ascites becomes infected. This happens in advanced liver disease because the immune system response weakens and the bacterial environment in the gut changes.

Why does SBP happen?

SBP is most often caused by infection in fluid that collects in the peritoneal cavity (ascites). The fluid buildup often occurs with advanced liver or kidney disease. Risk factors for liver disease include: Very heavy alcohol use.

What is spontaneous bacterial peritonitis?

Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis is an infection of abdominal fluid, called ascites, that does not come from an obvious place within the abdomen, such as a hole in the intestines or a collection of pus. The condition typically affects people with liver disease, who often develop ascites as their disease worsens.

How does SBP calculate PMNs?

The absolute PMN count is calculated by multiplying the total white blood cell count (or total “nucleated cell” count) by the percentage of PMNs in the differential. The cell count and differential are performed manually without formal quality control.

Is SBP life threatening?

SBP is one of the most frequent and life-threatening complications of patients with cirrhosis. Mortality rates have stayed constant in spite of the development of new antibiotic treatments and early diagnosis of SBP infection (Fernandez et al 2002).

Why do you get spontaneous bacterial peritonitis?

What is the most common cause of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis?

The most common bacteria causing SBP are gram-negative Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae and gram-positive Streptococcus pneumoniae; usually only a single organism is involved.